ISSN: 2640-8147
Open Journal of Tropical Medicine
Research Article       Open Access      Peer-Reviewed

Manifestation Pattern of Malarial parasites among District Dir Lower inhabitants

Shah Zeb*

Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Department of Microbiology University of Haripur, KPK, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: Shah Zeb, Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Department of Microbiology University of Haripur, KPK, Pakistan, Tel: 0348-9100228; E-mail:
Received: 11 September, 2020 | Accepted: 25 September, 2020 | Published: 28 September, 2020
Keywords: Prevalence rate; Malaria parasites; Falciparum vivax; Climate change; Blood films and Survey

Cite this as

Zeb S (2020) Manifestation Pattern of Malarial parasites among District Dir Lower inhabitants. Open J Trop Med 4(1): 028-033. DOI: 10.17352/ojtm.000017

Background: Malaria fever is extreme overall wellbeing face an issue. Malaria fever keeps on being a peril to the ascendant nations. Epidemiological data from various territories of Pakistan is missing to intently appraise the event of various sorts of intestinal sickness. Locale Dir Lower is a hot zone with a high waterway framework and stream which gives great conditions to “mosquitoes’’ generation. The present examination was directed to explore the predominance of Malaria in locale Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan stretched out from October 2018.

Method: In this examination, an aggregate of 200 people nevertheless, guys, females, and kids who were inspected for the blood assortment. They were isolated into three gatherings based on ages with the end goal; (A: First 1-10) year age; gathering (B: 11 to 20) year age and gathering (C: 21) year or more. Blood tests were gathered and brought to the research center of class D medical clinic Totakan for malarial parasitic examination. For Active Case Detection (ACD) intestinal sickness territories in the regions were chosen and houses visits of associated patients with Malaria fever were made of these regions, while in the Passive Case Detection (PCD) procedure the blood films were taken from the patient going to the wellbeing stations (research centers of Category D Hospital Totakan).

Results: The general predominance of intestinal sickness in different example destinations included; recorded were as; in the wellbeing, station coming people groups half, in houses visits it was 27.5%, and in schools and understudies was about 22.5% recorded, individually. While the level of plasmodium species P. falciparum was 5% and P. vivax was 95% in the investigation zone.

Conclusion: The predominance of intestinal sickness was more noteworthy in the females’ locale when contrasted with guys in the examination region. It is additionally prescribed that the general vivacious hood and sanitation of the zone ought to be concentrated to recognize the harbors of the mosquitoes. The predominance female was likewise clear the various examinations drove in District Dir Lower. The explanation that females take additional time at home and they can’t change their area. It was seen that where to store water was accessible in the home while the female populace was affected because of the nibble of a mosquito. While the guys were busy with their exercises outside the home because of this explanation the male has barely any odds of the nibble by a mosquito.


Intestinal sickness is essentially a perilous overall parasitic infection in humans. Malaria fever has transferable illnesses that endured roughly 300 million individuals and around 780, 000 yearly passing’s consistently [1,2]. The four plasmodia species, for example, Plasmodium vivax Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae cause Malaria fever [3], and one recently different animal categories that are Plasmodium Knowles revealed by [4]. Intestinal sickness infections are for the most part cosmopolitan which is predominant in the tropical and sub-tropical locale including a few territories of Asia, Africa, and America [5]. Around 247 million cases in which 0.881 million get infections in 2006 [6]. The two basic kinds of malarial parasites in Pakistan are Plasmodium falciparum that wins around (36%) and different parasites are Plasmodium vivax which are about (64%) [7]. Break down of Malaria fever from a territory of Pakistan is insufficient that isn’t precisely survey the inescapability of different kinds of intestinal ailment [8,9]. The Malaria fever indications by and large show up from (8-25) days after the nibble. Basic indications of Malaria fever are a shortcoming, back agony, chills, disquietude (general sentiment of uneasiness, disease) spewing loose bowels, and some of the time a hack is likewise revealed [10]. Plasmodium has in excess of 100 species however a portion of this Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are regular species that are responsible for human Malaria fever [11,12]. The transmission of Malaria fever is precarious. The spreadable phase of Plasmodium falciparum happens among August and December in Pakistan. The Anopheles mosquito transmitted the Malaria fever parasite yet now and then the tainted blood item likewise spread the parasite called transfusion intestinal sickness and once in a while from mother to embryo called inherent transmission [13]. Malaria fever was spread all over in Pakistan. The predominance of intestinal sickness happens regularly [14,15], [16].Appropriate the difficulty of confrontation a few learning have optional the use of Artemether or quinine as the earliest procession of malaria treatment with complications. The high incidence stage of Plasmodium falciparum in Pakistan considered between starting from August to December [17]. Manly the Plasmodium vivax is responsible for causing malarial infection in Pakistan the Plasmodium falciparum infection is also rising. According to WHO reported the amount of malarial disease in Pakistan is referred that standard to Plasmodium falciparum raised to (34%) in year 1987 and further (54%) in 1990. In Pakistani state, the amount of malaria standard to Plasmodium falciparum goes up as of (3%) in 1987 the course for (54%) in 1990 [14]. The rate of Plasmodium falciparum increased that start from (45%) in 1995 to (68%) in 2006 in the area of Quetta in Baluchistan region and in Jhangara area of Sind region [18,19]. In Pakistan, undiagnosed malaria has 500,000 infections and 50,000 inferable death reported in each year [20] by method for greatly (37%) of cases clear to take a position in areas that at the separation points of Afghanistan and Iran [16]. The two malarial parasites in Pakistan including the species of Plasmodium vivax cause (64%) and the Plasmodium falciparum cause (36%) of ailments [21] and the Malaria fever is higher in the district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa when contrasted with Baluchistan, Sindh and the other Governmentally Controlled Tribal region [22]. The 90% new finding tests of Plasmodium falciparum in the region of Baluchistan and Sindh are planned and acknowledged with the treatment of chloroquine contention [23]. Pakistan has 95 million of cases and 161 million residents nearly (60%) of Pakistan occupants exist inside Malaria fever broad territory [24], While intestinal sickness is tropical illness due its quality in those atmospheres the Anopheles mosquitos can harbor the plasmodium parasite in mild area around the globe including the United States and Canada (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). Three kinds of Malaria fever antibodies candidates are read which are liable for the private by the primary consideration on those interrelated to contamination by with-drew of plasmodium genera which are Plasmodium falciparum [24,25]. We did this examination work to look at the predominance of the various sorts of intestinal sickness to ponder and watch the commonness association of the various kinds of Malaria fever in completely create and kid’s male female patients experienced intestinal sickness and its rebound to the counter malarial specialist in this districts [26,27].

Merterials and methods

Study area

This examination was completed in regions of district Dir Lower (DDL), which is a part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Malakand division. It was framed in 1996. The region Dir Lower is situated between 35º10’ to 35º16’ north scope and east longitudinal in a subtropical dried moderate portion of the Hindukush and the Swat is situated by East, the Afghanistan and Bajur organizing at the west side Dir Upper and locale of Chitral are situated in North, and Malakand in Southside. Out of 26 areas, Dir Lower is one of the locales Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province Pakistan. Dir Lower was spread around 1582 km2 (611sq m) and spread a zone. The locale is unforgiving with delicately sprinkle slop and emerging from 800 m asl in which the East to be 3000 m asl toward West [28-30].

Physical feature

A large portion of the territories were available at the bank of the waterway punjkora which begins from the Hindukush and associated with the swat stream close to Chakdara. Removed from little regions in south-west, Dir is a rough uneven district with top ascending to 5,000 meters (16,000 ft) in north-east and to 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) along the watersheds, with Swat toward the east and Afghanistan and Chitral toward the west and north. Region Dir are arranged at the north a good ways off of 124 KM from Peshawar. Its limit begins from “Chakdara” just on the left half of the fundamental street from Malakand go at 15 KM separation. Simply crossing the extension on waterway Swat (Chakdara is a door to Dir Lower and Upper). At the Northern side of Dir Lower Dir Upper, in South Malakand Agency, in the East Swat are found and Bajaur connected at Wastren sides. Higher pinnacles of Afghanistan interface North West rocky tracts.

Climate and rainfall

The survey’s atmosphere area is totally portrayed as a territory air with four specific seasons and respectably long winters. There were no climatological areas in the survey zone. Around then again, the rainfalls’ outline, relative suddenness’, and temperature can be gotten from the closest spot organized in Upper Dir Area. The temperature builds bit by bit very much arranged from January to June and after those, a tad at a time decreases up to December. The pre-summer season is quick and warm, the June and July are the warm months. As exhibited by the area information recorded in the midst of 1976–2005, in June, the mean generally unprecedented and mean smallest temperature has been recorded at 34.4°C and 11.5°C, independently. Winters are hard and unprecedented normally in December and January, with the mean most vital temperature of 8.8°C and mean the scarcest temperature of - 7°C. Precipitation turns out to be on a very basic level its winter season when it stood apart from trade seasons. The best common precipitation recorded in spring is 269.6 mm, and relative moistness ranges from (30% to 70%). The precipitation happens up to (60 %) in the winter months.

Data collection

The data was collected for the incidence of malaria due to outbreak of 1Anopheles mosquitoes in the local area of Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, which was carry out from 2018 to 2019. In this investigation twenty (20) different villages were included, which are Khadagzy, Sugyar, Terona,, Kamala, Pingal, Bagh, Otala, Dogal, Metta, Inzaro, Manogy, Saleem abad, Qala, Tawda chena, Manky, Bangokas, Katan and Mia brangola, of district Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were study for the incidence of malaria. The data was gathered from these distinctive areas of Dir Lower in 2018.

A whole of 200 individuals are consolidated both male female and adolescents were examined for the blood collection. The time of collection of the infection people were isolated into three group included; group (A: Initial 1-10) year ages; group (B: 11 to20) year age and group (C: 21) year or more. The sampling was completed by keeping two perspectives in the view.

Active Case Detection (ACD) method

In this case the home visit and local village hospital the blood were collected for the detection and preparation of slides both thick and thin were made from that patient who has sign and symptoms of malaria. For the active case detection malaria district in the area were chooses houses and local village hospital of selected patient of this disease were completed with the help of head of these areas. These selected samples were taken back to the laboratory of Category D hospital Totakan for the microscopic examination.

Passive Case Detection (PCD) method

In this strategy, the blood tests were gathered from tolerant going to the research facility area with a manifestation of intestinal sickness fever or a history interesting to Malaria fever. In these two procedures the example was gathered from the diverse sex and particular individuals included taught and uneducated both sooner or later from the patient who are going to the emergency clinic with same indication so intestinal sickness. Here suggested a couple of conversation starter about the standing water close to the home, sewage framework, about protective from mosquito, etc., and fill the poll (master forma) with the assistance of patient proposal. The data likewise gathered in the review of towns from the previous retailer’s works, etc. eventually gathered from the understudies additionally in the study of composition and schools.

Preparation of slides and Microscopy

The blood was taken from the patients and after that thick and thin smear was made on the same slide. The fingertip of the patient was sans earth with sterile arrangement soul and afterward pierce with a clean lancet. The drop of blood was put on slide and a thick blood smear was made with the help of the corner of another slide were they dry took after by obsession of slight blood smear by technique for methyl arrangement and naming. Giemsa recolor was used for recoloring and for the species ID. After that, the slide was kept in the arrangement of the Giemsa recolor for 20 to 30 minutes. These were spotless with faucet water dried and screened under ×100 wood oil drenching intensity of magnifying lens for the goals of any plasmodium.


In current research work about 200 samples of malarial patients of blood were collected irregularly from contrast populations of district Dir Lower Khyber pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. They were having different localities. Among these 100 samples were collected from health station Category D hospital Totakan (CDHT), and Abad clinical laboratory Ziarat Totakan enrolled peoples, 55 samples were collected from house visits local villages hospital and clinic and the 45 were collected from schools and colleges. The total samples were carefully studied by conventional microscope for the detection of tropozoite (ring-form) and schizont (many nucleated parasitic phase) of parasites.

Overall prevalence of plasmodium parasites of malaria in different areas of District Dir Lower

During this investigation was directing the rate of various malarial parasites. There are around 190 (95%) instances of Plasmodium vivax and 10 (5%) instances of Plasmodium falciparum were recorded from various towns of District Dir Lower. Enormous quantities of Plasmodium vivax were recorded while the base measures of Plasmodium falciparum were recorded. Presently it very well may be inferred that the Plasmodium vivax are major in the investigation zone. All out predominance of Malaria fever parasites of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum was recorded 200 in which the wellbeing station, emergency clinics and research center coming people groups was 100 (half), and nearby town medical clinics and facility was 55 (27.5%) and universities and schools understudies it was around 45 (22.5%) and the level of Plasmodium falciparum was 10 (5%) and Plasmodium vivax was 190 (95%) examines in the various areas of District Dir Lower. Thus result show that the level of Plasmodium vivax is more as complexity to Plasmodium falciparum Table 1.

Species wise occurrences of malaria disease in District Dir Lower

During this investigation predominance of Malaria species rate was a record from various zones of dir Lower in which the Plasmodium vivax 190 (95%) cases were recorded while the Plasmodium falciparum 10 (5%) cases were recorded. During this investigation the enormous number of female cases recorded in contrast with the male. This examination inferred that huge number of individuals of the investigation region contaminated with Plasmodium vivax parasite (Table 2).

Sex and age wise prevalence of malaria in District Dir Lower

During this investigation, the individuals are bunch by sex and age into three classes included gathering A from one to ten years, bunch B from eleven to twenty years and C bunch from twenty-one to above, etc. The individuals which experienced Malaria fever of gathering A 28 underage female and 23 underage male which is all out (25.5%) were the record and the gathering B which have 30 instances of youthful female and 11 youthful male which is complete (20.5%) was a record. The gathering C has the greatest number of individuals were tainted which have the 64 grown-up female and 44 grown-up male which have complete (54 %) cases were incorporated (Table 3).

During this examination, various networks have a place with various regions contaminated from malarial parasites were recorded. Out of 200 cases, there were 30 cases from Terono, 23 cases from Mian-brangola, 20 cases from Bangokas, 30 cases from Khadagzi, 18 cases from Metta, 11 from Sugyar and 16 cases from Kamala. Since these territories have open sewage arrangements of home just as the lakes and standing water and waterways which give appropriate natural surroundings to the mosquitoes breeding and age. There are around 4 cases from Bagh, 3 cases from Manky, 4 cases from Katan, 10 cases from Otala, 4 cases from inzaro, 6 from Saleem Abad, 5 from Pingal, 8 from Qala, 2 cases from Manogy 1 from Dogal, and 5 from Tawda Chena. These zones were littler quantities of people groups were tainted because these zones have nonappearance of standing water lakes and least number of sewage framework (Figures 1,2).


The epidemiological information has a place with the different locales of Pakistan isn’t palatable to actually overview the contamination of different sorts of intestinal sickness examined by [31]. Our investigation will propose move to the report about the investigation of ailment transmission of this disease. The less measure of male in our examination can be a direct result of different reasons. They have early and essential advances toward the social protection of workplaces as a contrast with the female, in view of our customary obstacle for females in this regard. The ordinary of the age of our examination was (3 to 10) year (Children) and from (11 to 20) year (Young) and from 21 or more years (Adult) in our investigation. Intestinal sickness came to through on sewage framework, standing water which is a merciless network medical issue in Pakistan [32]. This examination was direct to offer modern proof of all commonness of Malaria fever in District Dir Lower. Plasmodium vivax is the essential and basic malarial illness and as indispensable explanation of bleakness in the overall area of focal Asia, center and South America (DFP Malaria). During our investigation, 200 examples of intestinal sickness cases were gathered that were 190 (95%) instances of Plasmodium vivax and 10 (5%) instances of Plasmodium falciparum was a record. This outcome did of the different zones in area Dir Lower. The investigation drove in the encompassing territories of region Dir Lower which have the male are less tainted with Malaria fever as a contrast with the female in our examination. Since the females invest, more energy at their homes and they are not ready to migrate their situation because of duties and social conventions. On the possibility, that standing water is found close to the home so there are more conceivable outcomes for a mosquito to snack the female inside the home. Anyway, mosquitos have fewer possibilities for the chomp of males since they are generally occupied outside the home with their exercises. Due to this explanation the pace of females more in contrast with the male. A huge number of individuals about (100%) patients are in the ideal spot to the plain territory as complexity to the sloping region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This might be because of the detail that our investigation was locale Dir Lower and the huge number of malarial patients joined in this examination was additionally from Dir Lower not from different territories. Frequency of intestinal sickness among individuals of Locale Dir do from October 2013 to September 2014 recorded in this audit was (39.5%). This is essentially higher than the (12.29%) commonness rate announced in individuals from a comparable territory two years sooner [33]. This exhibits a development in the amount of Malaria fever cases among individuals in a zone of Dir Lower in any case Plasmodium vivax was recorded as the ruling species took after by Plasmodium falciparum and no example of Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale was recorded in the midst of this audit. Various makers likewise announced Plasmodium vivax as the genuine explanation behind intestinal sickness among individuals in Pakistan this may be that Plasmodium vivax is for the most part found in subtropical and mild zones [34]. In this audit, the immense relationship of intestinal sickness was found with the age of the host in the two guys and females. The most essential pace of ailment (11.0%) was recorded in people developed 21-30 and least (1.6%) in people for more than 60 years. This is moreover clear as crystal as in our overall population the all-inclusive communities of energetic age are progressively unique and along these lines all the more consistently snacked by the mosquitoes appeared differently in relation to senior developed ones. The most dumbfounding pace of intestinal sickness in age 21-30 was also recorded with everything taken into account populace of Area Bannu of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan [35]. The present audit showed that Malaria fever cases were increasingly ceaseless in the midst of the long stretches of August, September and October, for example, reap time season.

Conclusion and recommandation

Pakistan faces up to a noteworthy assessment in the administration and control of Malaria and with finding, nonattendance of exploratory organization work of speculative treatment and less openness of ACT saw by [36,37]. The results of this examination are to hit out that control of intestinal sickness difficult work would be prepared on Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and District Dir Lower. The occurrence of Malaria fever here is better, with featuring and upgrading species finding and furthermore ACT openness of treatment of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in District Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. During the present examination, it was seen by microscopy both thick and flimsy slides in which the male a lesser measure of contaminated as a contrast with the female. The explanation that the female take additional time at the home and they can’t change their area as a result of home obligation and society culture when in doubt it was seen that where store and standing water was accessible in the home or approach the homes so a huge part of the female populace was affected because of the chomp of mosquito. While the male was generally busy with their exercises outside the home due to this explanation the male has barely any odds of chomp through a mosquito. On account of this explanation the proportion of females more in contrast with the male. For the future, the District Dir Lower is required pesticide splash or another source to decrease the mosquitoes and reasonable treatment for the end of Malarial Plasmodium parasites.

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© 2020 Zeb S, et al. This is an open-ojtmcess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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